Define edema | Causes of edema and their details
Oedema is the increase of fluid in the interstitial tissue spaces.The presence of an excessive amount of fluid in or around cells, tissues or serous cavities of the body.When parts of the body are affected with edema, they are considered edematous.
Causes of edema:
- Cardiac failure.
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Acute glomerulonephritis
- Drugs – Corticosteroids, calcium channel blocker
- Liver cirrhosis
Mechanism of edema-
Increased hydrostatic pressure
Reduced oncotic pressure within blood vassels
Increased tissue oncotic or colloidal osmotic pressure.
Increased blood vessel wall permeability
Obstruction of fluid clearance via lymphatic system.
Changes in the water retaining properties of tissue themselves.
Signs of edema include:
Swelling the tissue directly under your skin, especially legs or arms
Increased abdominal size
Stretched or shiny skin.
in other cases, the skin may not hold an indent when pressed
Skin that retains a dimple, after being pressed for several seconds.
Diagnosis of fluid retention:
Diagnostic tests may include:
- chest x-ray
- medical history
- physical examination
- detailed questioning about the fluid retention, such as when it started.
- blood examination
- urine examination
Exudate:Exudate is any fluid that filters for the circulatory system formed in inflammation.
Exudate is protein rich fluid. It is specific gravity is over 1020.
Transudate: The is extravascular fluid with low protein content and low specific gravity formed in non-inflammatory oedema.
Dehydration: The result or condition caused due to excessive loss of body fluid is called dehydration.
- Severe cholera
- Severe diarrhoea
- Excessive sweating
- Severe haemorrhage
- Injection of hypertonic solution etc.
- Sunken of eyeball
- Dryness of mouth of tongue
- Wrinkles of skin
- Prominence of supra-orbital margin, zygomatic arch etc.
- Decrease blood pressure
- Rapid and weak pulse.